How does the INTERNET work? | ICT #2

How does the INTERNET work? | ICT #2


How does the internet work? The video you are watching now traveled thousands of miles from a Google Data Center to reach
you. Let’s learn how the internet works by getting to understand the details of
this data’s incredible journey. The data center which can be thousands of miles away from you has your video stored inside it. how does this data reach your mobile phone or a laptop? An easy way to achieve this goal would be with use of satellites. From the data center, a signal could be
sent to the satellite via an antenna, and then from the satellite a signal
could be sent to your mobile phone via another antenna near to you. However, this way of transmitting signals is not a good idea. Let’s see why. The satellite is parked nearly 22,000 miles above the earth’s equator, so in order for the data transmission to be successful, the data would have to travel a total distance of 44,000 miles. Such a long distance of travel causes a
significant delay in receiving the signal. More specifically it causes huge
latency which is unacceptable for most internet applications so if this video does not reach you via a satellite then how does it actually get to you? Well it is done with the help of a complicated network of optical fiber cables, which connect between the data center and your device. Your phone could be connected to the
internet via cellular data or any Wi-Fi router, but ultimately at some point your
phone will be connected to this network of optical fiber cables We saw at the beginning that the video
you are currently watching is stored inside a data center. To be more specific, it is stored in a
solid-state device within the data center. This SSD acts as the internal memory of a server. The server is simply a powerful computer
whose job is to provide you the video or other stored content when you request it. Now the challenge is how to transfer the data stored in the data center specifically to your device via the complex network of optical fiber cables. Let’s see how this is done. Before proceeding further we should first
understand an important concept which is the concept of an IP address. Every device that is connected to the Internet whether it is a server a computer or a
mobile phone is identified uniquely by a string of numbers known as an IP address. You can consider the IP address similar to your home address that is the address,
that uniquely identifies your home. Any letter sent to you reaches you precisely because of your home address. Similarly in the internet world an IP
address acts as a shipping address through which all information reaches
its destination. Your internet service provider will decide the IP address of your device and you are able to see what IP address your ISP has given to your
mobile phone or laptop. The server in the data center also has
an IP address. The server stores a website so you can
access any website just by knowing the server’s IP address. However, it is
difficult for a person to remember so many IP addresses. So to solve this problem domain names like youtube.com, facebook.com etc are used which correspond to IP addresses which are easier for us to remember than the long sequence of numbers Another thing to notice here is that a server has the capability of storing several websites and if the server consists of multiple
websites all the websites cannot be accessed with the server’s IP address. In such cases additional pieces of information, host headers are used to
uniquely identify the website. However, for the giant web sites like Facebook.com or YouTube.com the entire data center infrastructure will be dedicated
to the storage of the particular website. To access the internet we always use
domain names instead of the complex IP address numbers. From where does the internet get IP addresses corresponding to our domain name requests. Well, for this purpose the internet uses a huge phone book known as DNS. If you know a person’s name, but don’t know their telephone number you can simply look it
up in a phone book. The DNS server provides the same service to the internet. Your internet service provider or other organizations can manage the DNS server. Let’s have a recap of the whole operation. You enter the domain name, the browser sends a request to the DNS
server to get the corresponding IP address. After getting the IP address, your browser simply forwards the request to the data center, more specifically to the respective
server. Once the server gets a request to access
a particular website the data flow starts. The data is transferred in digital format via optical fiber cables, more specifically in the form of light
pulses. These light pulses sometimes have to travel thousands of miles via the
optical fiber cable to reach their destination. During their journey they often have to go through tough terrains such as hilly areas or under the sea. There are a few global companies who lay and maintain these optical cable
networks. These visuals show how the laying of optical fiber cables is done with the help of a ship. A plow is dropped deep into the sea from
the ship, and this plow creates a trench on the
seabed and to which places the optical fiber cable. In fact, this complex optical cable network is the backbone of the Internet. These optical fiber cables carrying the light are stretched across the seabed to
your doorstep where they are connected to a router. The router converts these light signals to electrical signals. An Ethernet cable is then used to transmit the electrical signals to your
laptop. However if you are accessing the Internet using cellular data, from the optical cable the signal has to be sent to a cell tower and from the cell tower the signal reaches your cell phone in the form of
electromagnetic waves. Since the Internet is a global network
it has become important to have an organization to manage things like IP
address assignment, domain name registration etc this is all managed by
an institution called ICANN located in the USA. One amazing thing about the
internet is its efficiency in transmitting data when compared with
cellular and landline communication technologies. This video you are watching
from the Google Data Center is sent to you in the form of a huge collection of
zeros and ones. What makes the data transfer in the internet efficient is the way in which these zeros and ones are chopped up into small chunks known
as packets and transmitted. Let’s assume these streams of zeros and ones are divided into different packets by the server where each packet consists of six
bits. Along with the bits of the video each
packet also consists of the sequence number and the IP addresses of the
server and your phone. With this information the packets are routed towards your phone. It’s not necessary that all packets are routed through the same path and each packet independently takes the best route available at that
time. Upon reaching your phone the packets are reassembled according to their sequence number. If it is the case that any packets fail to reach your phone and acknowledgement is sent from your phone to resend the lost packets. Now compare this with a postal network with a good infrastructure, but the
customers do not follow the basic rules regarding the destination addresses. In this scenario letters won’t be able to reach the correct destination. Similarly in the internet we use
something called protocols for the management of this complex flow of data
packets. The protocols set the rules for data packet conversion, attachment of the source and destination addresses to each packet and the rules for routers etc for
different applications the protocols used are different. We hope this video has given you a good understanding about how the internet
works, more specifically about the amazing journey of data packets from the data center to your mobile phone. Please don’t forget to support us at
patreon.com. Thank You!

100 Comments

  1. Learn Engineering says:

    Friends, I hope you liked the video. https://www.patreon.com/LearnEngineering , Your support at Patreon is invaluable to us.

  2. Gaurav Kudalkar says:

    Really Excellent Video on how internet works.Thanks a lot. Keep on doing good work.

  3. Gregory Ashton says:

    2:55 Similarly? That’s easy for you to say 😂

  4. zone47 says:

    Smoke signals were easier to understand….

  5. rao bb says:

    This is about internet. When we start communicating with other planets it will be extranet.

  6. MK4VLI S says:

    It’s all done by underwater cables, satellites don’t exist

    Earth is flat and motionless

  7. 林MISS says:

    要是有中文翻译就好了

  8. SANTOSH KUMAR PARIDA says:

    Thank you

  9. nazar says:

    I am now applying for it manager role

  10. mahe m says:

    Love the way you explained with animation, fantastic

  11. Arjun VP says:

    Really helpful and simple to understand , good work…

  12. Vinnie Bolisetti says:

    Best video and loved the animation!

  13. Madhu says:

    0:00 damn she thick

  14. Umair Khan jadoon says:

    This sounds slow but is actually fast
    Life right !

  15. Timmy Jones says:

    Thank You

  16. red tomatoes says:

    So that's how we get our porn.

  17. Upvote Comment says:

    So… 6:54 Is the ICANN the one who gathers and collect all of our information in the Net?
    That Snowden leaked? just a conspiracy (-.-b) hahhah
    HELLO US GOVERNMENT! my porn won't interest you I swear

  18. 古元坎 says:

    看了这个我终于知道为什么我这里网速这么渣了。

  19. Mad King says:

    LMAO 5:29 I can't stop laughing 🤣

  20. K S says:

    its not Darta…its Data 🙂

  21. rodeo o says:

    why in the animations is the google center in china,????????????????? china will use this to monopolise////

  22. Johnnie says:

    Amazing tutorial and graphics! Well done.

  23. Ankit Singh says:

    All that happens in less than 1 sec.. 😧

  24. amSEC says:

    Satellites are just hoax

  25. Harvey Harris says:

    Sir, wonderful video

  26. Muhammad Sharif Haider says:

    Great demonstration

  27. Official Sohorab says:

    quite good explanation

  28. accession knowledge says:

    6:08 wrong information…. ONU placed between optic fiber and router or computer or device. For convert light signal to digital signal.

  29. thupprys thupprys says:

    GOOD

  30. When I say Lady in red says:

    Very informative but one thing I don't understand. How do you make money without ads? 👀👀👀👀👀

  31. Ahammadul Kabeer says:

    This is the one I am looking thk u lots…

  32. Navi says:

    How much are you inspired by what if??

  33. Ali Laskar says:

    Sir in my local mobile tower,there is no any cable connected from outside ,so how do i feel about optical fibre.thanks

  34. EEE Link says:

    বাংলাদেশ থেকে ভালোবাসা

  35. Hz. İnsan says:

    çok faydalı bir içerik olmuş. Türkiye adına çok thanks…:)

  36. Md Mustafiz says:

    Very helpful vedio.

  37. EyesOfByes says:

    5:33 Under DA Sea

  38. Kiar Beshir says:

    Thank you for you sharing us

  39. Yanz kid says:

    Transfer data via postman…easy !

  40. David Ortiz says:

    Where can I find the Google operator with big boobs ?

  41. shiva parvathi tech in telugu says:

    Thank you for your information

  42. President Friday says:

    are you telling me that woman standing next to a cell tower was standing in the middle of the amazon 😯 impressive

  43. Muhammad Husnain says:

    Worth watching

  44. Android premi says:

    Very useful video🥰

  45. Scott Gallant says:

    My internet is powered by unicorns.

  46. Joseph Steinhauser says:

    HEY !! — Lots of Mistakes and Corrections for this Video:

    [ 00:11 ] The video shows data traveling from Northwestern Europe (near Netherlands) across the Atlantic, to reach a user in Southwestern USA (near Phoenix Arizona,USA).

    In theory, most commonly referenced internet data and YouTube videos are stored/replicated in multiple data centers, and would not need to be sent around the world, to reach you.

    When you begin playing a YouTube video, Google's network checks the list of multiple locations where that video should be stored, and compares this with the city/location of your IP-address.

    The Google network then connects your web browser to computers holding the closest copy of your video, so that you get faster response times, AND the network does not have to use extra resources to give you the data.

    So- for a Youtube video, it is uncommon for that data to come from 10,000 km away, or across the ocean.

    This may occur however, if you are trying to access data that newly uploaded, rarely used, or only available in one location.
    ( more items below… They would not post together, in one piece )

  47. Angel Cirruto says:

    Your info is a bit OUTDATED. 🥴

  48. Berly Ian Jay Monterde says:

    My internet is powered by 🐢🐢🐢🐢🐢🐢🐢🐢

  49. Entertainment says:

    wow its nice

  50. King Of Sync says:

    This is total bullshit. i just retired from the telcom industry and the way it works is very similar to a telco network. Your local end office assigns you a meet point, and that meet point is in a DSLAM. The DSLAM goes to a router usually a Juniper, Cisco or Alcatel. Then that goes to a tandem router that handles routers from other local offices. Then the tandem router goes to the Gateway offices, usually in a Downtown office. The Gateway handles hundreds of Gateway routers, and that goes to a Nationwide Hub, and the hub does the final destination. If it's overseas, then it connects to the serving overseas hub. The ip address your are terminating to is like a phone number. That's how it works. There is no way your modem is hooked up to a fiber optic cable in the middle of an ocean.

  51. El proffesor says:

    How could the satellites being stable in space!?

  52. El proffesor says:

    Why doesn’t AT&T work in Dubai for example?

  53. rohan kamdar says:

    Can u make vedio on telling what is 1G 2G 3G etc… ur vedio has given me lot of information… Thank you

  54. Anwar R Chouhan says:

    Crux of the video
    "Satellite theory is a Bullshit Theory"

  55. Aqib Fayyaz says:

    Thank you

  56. Alphyz Qrw says:

    I'm using Internet now

  57. Alphyz Qrw says:

    Internet need to be switched off

  58. Raymond Obedoza says:

    Illuminati confirm

  59. FEIL ReCover flat earth says:

    Satellites do not exist there's absolutely no need for them to exist they sell you this garbage wake up

  60. Fati Salaga says:

    Gahanaa

  61. Sergio Jardon says:

    exelent topic very clear explanation thanks!1 a cuestion to personal use: wahta kind of program you use for your humans animations/ pictures? thanks!

  62. العلم نور says:

    Thank you so much for your information but I have one quetion is
    How computer operating system work step by step?
    What is your answers for this and thank

    Can you translator your channel arabic becous I am morocco and I speak Arabic becous I dont understand good language english

  63. Ahmad Izzat Shahmier Alhamdulillah says:

    Alhamdulillah, nice information for myself 🙂

  64. Mcbeg33 says:

    Just look at the things we human beings are capable of making when there’s Trillions of dollars to be made. I hope people like Elon Musk will be able to do the same thing with space tourism/exploration.

  65. Smart Man says:

    Bro put video about server more information please

  66. TheProgrammingJedi says:

    Very good video for all those who are trying to understand what's going on in our world! 😀

  67. Desfascinante Alien says:

    🇺🇸🌎🌍🌏💵💵💵🇺🇸

  68. Trader Joe says:

    lady in red dummy thicc

  69. Mr. faisaL says:

    GooD joB##
    Quite got an understanding in a BeautifuL way##

  70. Nasri Jumaidi says:

    I am a computer Engineer, i wish to work in ICANN.

  71. Dan Calvano says:

    ( . )( . )

  72. zuber mangi says:

    very well explained with animations

  73. mark mesic says:

    bottom line is that the signal travels thru telephone company lines

  74. Raghuram reddy says:

    Oh my god! thank you so much

  75. Alex Nezhynsky says:

    I don't think the Google/YouTube datacenters are in Germany…

  76. Bernet Subo says:

    reminds me of domain name server presentation back in college 🙂 computer science is fun really love this domain 🙂

  77. Warsame Adam says:

    Internet service providers aren't mentioned in this video.

  78. Dadoo99 Ksanoody says:

    This the first time i see this i know a bout how the intret work really thx a bout this nice a dia ppl know how this work.bcz some ppl dosent know about this okay there some stady but thay forget soo nice what did thay do

  79. snorgisborg2 says:

    Tigole biddies on the cgi woman

  80. Ivan Tadeu da Silva says:

    👏

  81. Manasseh Reuben says:

    Well, the girls phone book had "Butt Heads" Number.. 😛

  82. Usman Arshad says:

    The best video of year 2019

  83. Outrageous 20 says:

    Not possible on a flat earth. This is a good presentation but totally false and in accurate. There's no magical satellites in space.

  84. carlus adonaï says:

    Hahahahahahaha , COMO ESSES IGNORANTES e TOLOS HUMANOS AINDA TEM A CORAGEM em acreditar em RELIGIÃO , ao dizer : QUANDO ME FAZEM O MAL ENTREGO NA MÃO DE DEUS , hahahahahahahahahahahahahaha , EU COMO SEI DA VERDADE DIGO : QUANDO ME FAZEM MAL , É SÓ EU DESLIGAR O CONTATO DA PUCE espirito COM O COMPUTADOR ONIPOTENTE E A PESSOA MORRE na HORA , e APOS é RESSUSCITADO E VAI PRO TRABALHO ESCRAVO DAS PROFUNDEZAS DO INFERNO ( gas E petroleo ) , FACIL e EFICAZ , ou seja ; A MORTE é O DESLIGAMENTO ENTRE A PUCE E O COMPUTADOR ONIPOTENTE . hahahahahahahahahahahahahahahaha , LEMBRE-SE os Dois UNICOS HOMEM em VIDA REAL COM PODER eIMPORTANCIA é DEUS e O DIABO , ou seja ; : O DIABO GENERAL MARCUS CESAR que é MAL , e , O DEUS REY CLAUDIO CRISTO que é PERVERSO . ou melhor dizendo : O HOMEM ( humanos ) ( CRIANÇA ou IDOSO , HOMEM ou MULHER , RICO ou POBRE , BRANCO ou NEGRO ) NÃO SÃO DONOS NEM MESMO DA PROPRIA VIDA , ou seja ; NÃO EXISTE AUCUN HOMEM SEMELHANTE A DEUS , da mesma Forma , NÃO EXISTE AUCUN HOMEM SEMELHANTE AO FILHO DIABO, exemplo : A BORBOLETA TEM DUAS ASSAS E VOA MAS NASCE DE LARVA , O PASSARO TEM DUAS ASSAS VOA MAS NASCE DE OVO , ou seja ; QUEM VIVE DE PASSADO é LARVA que usa MOOUSEU , ou seja ; APENAS A HISTORIA DO PASSADO , PQ AO PRESENTE NAO EXISTE HOMEM QUE ANDA SOBRE AS AGUAS , POR ISSO QUE LARVAS QUE VIVE DO PASSADO do MOOUSEU , TEM APENAS O MAXIMO 100 ANOS antes de IR PRO INFERNO # fica a dica !

  85. BiggRigg42 says:

    This video has some good looking people in it.

  86. Beatrice Mendez Kennedy says:

    Awesome video and great animations!

  87. INFO WHITE says:

    Can you please give me permission to use some of this Vedio clip in my vedio please please please

  88. Dre Kelley says:

    Hope nobody dives in the water and cuts the wires

  89. Dre Kelley says:

    All that so i can watch porn

  90. PRAKASH S says:

    Thank you sir pls one help explanation details are sent to letters form in english this video speach very fast so i need writen formet very urgent

  91. PRAKASH S says:

    I will try to ppt on select this topic

  92. PRAKASH S says:

    My whats app num 8489852316

  93. TRUE MASTER says:

    The computer start with 0 to 1 and world starts with 0 to infinite

  94. MALLAPPA PASHCHAPUR says:

    Thank you sir,I understood all this first time.

  95. iseejanuarie1788 UNHL217A3 says:

    Bubble heads

  96. Mile High Millionaires Club says:

    Thank God, they figured out how to reverse engineer that flying saucer that crashed in Roswell and when they found the fiber optic cables they figured out how to use it. there was no such thing as fiber optic cable until that crash. I remember how te farmer told the news media there were cables that had clear strands running through it instead of copper wires like we were used to seeing. clear strands in a cable? you can figure that out, right? that crash sent us ahead in technology about a thousand years

  97. Ajay Jain says:

    2 min silence for all those people who believe that whatsapp and all othe applications earn because when we use them a lot of data is consumed.

  98. shivam Sharma says:

    It's like I have a data packet

  99. Hing Yee says:

    Thanks!

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